Cricket

Cricket

Cricket is a game played between eleven players on each side. It originated in England. It is similar to baseball in such a way that the ball used in both the games needs to be hit long and hard using a bar like tool called the bat or a base as called in baseball. At the centre of the ground the stumps are at each end of specially prepared rectangle called 'the pitch'. The pitch is inside a much larger oval of grass called the 'area of play'. The area of play is a 30 yard circle inside the cricket ground or stadium. 
Today, it is a popular sport in Commonwealth countries viz. England, Australia, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, South Africa, New Zealand, the West Indies and several other countries such as Afghanistan, Ireland, Kenya, Scotland,  Netherlands, and Zimbabwe, Kenya, Canada, Bermuda, Scotland, Holland and South Africa. 
  

balls


bats


pitch or wicket






The playing terms 
There are two teams: The team fielding having 11 players on the field is called fielding side. The team batting has two players, one at each end of the wicket. The rest of the batting team are off the field.
 Captains of the teams decides which team will bat and which team will field by tossing the coin and predicting Head or Tail will be seen when coin rests on the ground.
The captain of the bowling team chooses a bowler from his team; the other players are called 'fielders'. Wicket is made up of three sticks (called stumps) stuck into the earth, with two small sticks (called bails) balanced on them The bowler is trying to aim the ball at a wicket in a particular manner,. One of the fielders, called the 'wicket keeper', stands behind the wicket to catch the ball if the bowler misses the wicket. The other fielders may chase the ball after the batsman has hit it. 
After a ball is bowled, you get the points(runs) mostly by hitting the ball and running towards bowlers end. Batter from the other end will run towards wicket keeper end. You can also score runs (points) by hitting the ball over or across the boundary 
The bowler runs towards his wicket, and bowls towards the batsman at the other wicket. He does not throw the ball. He bowls the ball overarm with a straight arm. If he bends his arm, the other teams are given one run and he has to bowl the ball again. An 'over' is six balls, meaning he bowls six times. Then another player becomes the bowler for the next over, and bowls from the other end, and so on. The same bowler cannot bowl two overs one after the other. 
The batsman is defend the wicket from getting hit with the ball by using bat. He is not supposed to use any other part of the body. When he hits the ball with his bat, he may run toward the other side of wicket. To score a run, the two batsmen must both run from their wicket to the other end of wicket, as many times as they can, before they can be run out. Being run out is explained below. If the ball leaves the field after being hit without bouncing, six runs are scored. If the ball rolls or bounces out, whether or not the batter hit it, it counts as four runs. 
There are different ways that a batsman can get out. The most common ways are: 
The batsman misses the ball and the ball hits the wicket: called bowled, or being "bowled out".
The ball hits the batsman's body when it would have hit the wicket otherwise. Called LBW (leg before wicket). The way this rule is applied is complicated; this is just the general idea.
A fielder catches the ball after the batsman hits it, and before it bounces or leaves the field: called caught.
While the batsmen are running, a fielder can throw the ball at the wicket. If the batsmen cannot finish the run in time, and the ball hits the wicket, the batsman nearer to the wicket that is hit is out: this is called run out.
If a batsman hits the wicket by mistake he is given out. It is called self out
When a batsman is out, another comes onto the field to take his place. The innings is over when ten wickets are taken (i.e. ten of the eleven batsmen are out). After this, the team which was the 'fielding' team becomes the 'batting' team. They now have to score more runs than the other team managed to score. If they score more runs before ten wickets are taken, they win. If they do not, the other team wins. 
In a one-day game, each side has one innings, and innings are limited to a certain number of overs. In longer formats each side has two innings, and there is no specific limit to the number of overs in an innings. 
Team scoring higher runs wins the match.
Test playing countries tour other test playing countries and play friendly matches there. This exchange of visits is monitored and approved by ICC.
Cricket ball is hard. Players may get injured when it hits the body, It is fatal when it hits head or abdomen. Hence Batman and Wicket keepers wear protective gears. Even fielders wear helmets when fielding closer to batsman


a pair of gloves

guards



abdomen guard



helmet

                     



Cricket Major Tournaments:
The Cricket World Cup is one of the international championships of cricket and the main event of One Day International (ODI) cricket. It is held by the International Cricket Council (ICC), after every four years, with first qualification rounds leading up to a semifinals and then the final. The tournament is one of the world's most viewed sporting events and is considered the "flagship event of the international cricket calendar" by the ICC.[1] 
The World Cup was started in England in June 1975, with the first ODI cricket match having been played only four years earlier. However, a separate Women's Cricket World Cup had been held two years before the first men's tournament, and a tournament involving multiple international teams had been held as early as 1912, when a triangular tournament of Test matches was played between Australia, England and South Africa. The first three World Cups were held in England. From the 1987 tournament onwards, hosting has been shared between countries under an unofficial rotation system, with fourteen ICC members having hosted at least one match in the tournament. 
The World Cup is open to all members of the International Cricket Council (ICC), although the highest-ranking teams receive automatic qualification. The remaining teams are determined via the World Cricket League and the ICC World Cup Qualifier. A total of twenty teams have competed in the eleven editions of the tournament, with fourteen teams competing in 2015; the recent 2019 tournament only had ten teams. Australia has won the tournament five times, India and West Indies twice each, while Pakistan, Sri Lanka and England have won it once each. The best performance by a non-full-member team came when Kenya made the semi-finals of the 2003 tournament. 
England are the current champions after winning the 2019 edition. The next tournament will be held in India in 2023. 


Men’s T20 World Cup Finals:

Year Host(s) Final venue Final 
Winner Runner-up Margin 
2007
South Africa Johannesburg India
157/5 (20 overs) Pakistan
152 all out (19.4 overs) 5 runs
Scorecard 
2009
England London Pakistan
139/2 (18.4 overs) Sri Lanka
138/6 (20 overs) 8 wickets
Scorecard 
2010
West Indies Bridgetown England
148/3 (17 overs) Australia
147/6 (20 overs) 7 wickets
Scorecard 
2012
Sri Lanka Colombo West Indies
137/6 (20 overs) Sri Lanka
101 all out (18.4 overs) 36 runs
Scorecard 
2014
Bangladesh Dhaka Sri Lanka
134/4 (17.5 overs) India
130/4 (20 overs) 6 wickets
Scorecard 
2016
India Kolkata West Indies
161/6 (19.4 overs) England
155/9 (20 overs) 4 wickets
Scorecard


A standard cricket ground, showing the cricket pitch (brown), close-infield (light green) within 15 yards (13.7 m) of the striking batsman, infield (medium green) inside the white 30 yard (27.4 m) circle, and outfield (dark green), with sight screens beyond the boundary at either end.

The Cricket pitch dimensions
The field
A cricket field is where cricket is played. It is circular or oval-shaped grassy ground. There are no fixed dimensions for the field. Its diameter usually varies between 450 feet (137 m) to 500 feet (100 m). 
Different forms of cricket
Test matches
Test matches are the top international matches played between countries. The main point of test cricket is to test young players. The countries permitted to play test matches are accredited by the ICC: the International Cricket Council. The ten countries are listed below, with 'West Indies', 'England' counting for this purpose as a country. Tests last for up to five days (This is why many also call it "5 day cricket.") and can still end in a draw match : it is the longest format of cricket. 
Test Playing Nations: 
Australia
India
England
New Zealand
Pakistan
Sri Lanka
Bangladesh
South Africa
West Indies
Afghanistan
Ireland
National league systems
Called counties in England, and states in Australia and islands in the West Indies. These are three or four day matches. 
Limited overs cricket

A perspective view of the cricket pitch from the bowler's end. The bowler runs in past one side of the wicket at the bowler's end, either 'over' the wicket or 'round' the wicket.
In these games, the length is determined by the number of overs, and each side has one innings only. A special formula, known as the 'Duckworth–Lewis method' is applied if rain reduces the time for play. It calculates the target score for the team batting second in a limited overs match interrupted by weather or other circumstance. 
One day internationals (T50)
ODIs are usually restricted to 50 overs batting for each side and each bowler can bowl up to 10 overs maximum. The highest team score is England 481-6 against Australia in June 19, 2018.[5] The highest individual score is 264 off 173 balls by Rohit Sharma for India against Sri Lanka. 
Twenty20 cricket (T20 Cricket)
Twenty20 cricket has 20 overs for each side and each bowler can bowl up to 4 overs maximum unlike 10 overs in an ODI match. The highest team score is 263/5 by Royal Challengers Bangalore (RCB) against Pune Warriors India (PWI) in the 2013 IPL season. The highest individual score is 175* off 69 balls by Chris Gayle for RCB in the same match. 
Averages
In cricket there are two special kinds of average, used to measure how good a player is: 
A batsman's batting average is the number of runs he has scored in a period (such as a year or his whole career), divided by the number of times he was got out in the same period. A good batsman has a high batting average..
A bowler's bowling average is the number of runs that have been scored while he was bowling, in a period, divided by the number of batsmen he has got out in the same period. A good bowler has a low bowling average. 

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